Objective: The objectives of the research work described in this paper serve to verify these hypotheses.
Methods: In a series of experiments continuous-wave (CW) HIUE was applied under in- vitro conditions that simulate the in- vivo extracellular environment of UAL under semi- clinical conditions. A sensitive photo detecting system was utilized to detect SL and sono- chemiluminescence (SCL ).
Results: We are reporting that CW- HIUE applied under conditions that simulate UAL operating in an intercellular environment is above threshold intensities where cavitation is generated with the subsequent creation of FR and OR in large quantities, and in which SL is generated.
Conclusions: These findings question the long-term biosafety of UAL in its clinical application.
Topaz M, Shuster V, Assia EI, Meyerstein D, Meyerstein N, Mazor , Gedanken A.
Ultrasound Med Biol. 2005 Aug;31(8):1123-9.
Cataract surgery by phacoemulsification generates acoustic cavitation, resulting in formation of reactive oxygen species. The aim of this study was to establish the mechanism of damage by phacoemulsification in an in vitro setting simulating cataract surgery and to assess the protective effects of water-soluble antioxidants. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to analyze generation of radicals in an intraocular irrigating solution by phacoemulsification instrumentation, operating at an ultrasonic frequency range of 40--60 kHz. Hydroxyl radicals were generated by phacoemulsification under conditions simulating cataract surgery. The effects of water-soluble antioxidants in the irrigating solution on the amounts of radicals were evaluated by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The water-soluble antioxidant glutathione, applied in either oxidized or reduced form, decreased hydroxyl radicals concentration measured in the sonicated medium. The effective concentrations of oxidized and reduced glutathione in irrigating solution that significantly eliminate the hydroxyl radical signal were determined in the range of 10(-3)-10(-2) M. Antioxidants should be applied clinically to reduce damage to the corneal endothelium induced by phacoemulsification, thereby improving biosafety.